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Lower back pain is one of the most common health complaints worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 80% individuals experience lower back pain at some point of their lives.

Lower back pain can have various causes, ranging from minor muscle strains to more serious underlying conditions. Understanding the potential causes of lower back pain can help individuals seek appropriate treatment and management strategies

One of the most common causes of lower back pain is a muscle strain. This typically occurs when the muscles in the lower back are stretched or torn due to sudden movements, lifting heavy objects improperly, or excessive physical activity.

Prolonged sitting or standing with poor posture can put stress on the muscles and ligaments in the lower back, leading to pain. Slouching, hunching over a desk, or improper ergonomics can contribute to lower back pain.

Also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, a herniated disc occurs when the soft inner material of a spinal disc protrudes through a tear in the outer layer. This can irritate nearby nerves, resulting in lower back pain and associated symptoms such as leg pain or numbness.

With age, the discs that act as cushions between the vertebrae in the spine can gradually wear down or degenerate.

Spinal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. This condition often develops as a result of age-related changes in the spine and can cause lower back pain, as well as leg pain and weakness.

Various forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, can affect the lower back and cause pain. Arthritis leads to inflammation, stiffness, and cartilage damage in the joints, contributing to lower back pain.

The sacroiliac joints, located at the base of the spine where the sacrum connects to the pelvis, can become inflamed or dysfunctional, leading to lower back pain. This condition is more common in women and can be aggravated by pregnancy, injury, or repetitive stress.

Infections or inflammatory conditions affecting the spine, such as spinal infections or ankylosing spondylitis, can cause lower back pain.

Lastly, fractures, sprains, or strains resulting from accidents, falls, or sports-related activities, can cause lower back pain.


It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and other factors can contribute to lower back pain. Treatment options may include pain medication, physical therapy, exercise, hot or cold therapy, and in some cases, surgery. Additionally, adopting a healthy lifestyle, maintaining proper posture, and avoiding excessive strain on the lower back can help prevent future episodes of pain. If conservative treatments are not helping, best to get in contact with a orthopaedic expert to diagnose and offer next steps.


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